am I?" is the title given to a set of questions and answers bearing
on Self-enquiry. The questions were put to Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi
by one Sri M. Sivaprakasam Pillai about the year 1902. Sri Pillai, a
graduate in Philosophy, was at the time employed in the Revenue
Department of the South Arcot Collectorate. During his visit to
Tiruvannamalai in 1902 on official work, he went to Virupaksha Cave on
Arunachala Hill and met the Master there. He sought from him spiritual
guidance, and solicited answers to questions relating to Self-enquiry. As
Bhagavan was not talking then, not because of any vow he had taken, but
because he did not have the inclination to talk, he answered the
questions put to him by gestures, and when these were not understood, by
writing. As recollected and recorded by Sri Sivaprakasam Pillai, there
were fourteen questions with answers to them given by Bhagavan. This
record was first published by Sri Pillai in 1923, along with a couple of
poems composed by himself relating how Bhagavan's grace operated in his
case by dispelling his doubts and by saving him from a crisis in life. 'Who
am I?' has been published several times subsequently. We find thirty
questions and answers in some editions and twenty-eight in others. There
is also another published version in which the questions are not given,
and the teachings are rearranged in the form of an essay. The extant
English translation is of this essay. The present rendering is of the
text in the form of twenty-eight questions and answers.
with Vicharasangraham (Self-Enquiry), Nan Yar (Who am I?) constitutes the
first set of instructions in the Master's own words. These two are the
only prose-pieces among Bhagavan's Works. They clearly set forth the
central teaching that the direct path to liberation is Self-enquiry. The
particular mode in which the enquiry is to be made is lucidly set forth
in Nan Yar. The mind consists of thoughts. The 'I' thought is the first
to arise in the mind. When the enquiry ' Who am I?' is persistently
pursued, all other thoughts get destroyed, and finally the 'I' thought
itself vanishes leaving the supreme non-dual Self alone. The false
identification of the Self with the phenomena of non-self such as the
body and mind thus ends, and there is illumination, Sakshatkara. The
process of enquiry of course, is not an easy one. As one enquires 'Who am
I?', other thoughts will arise; but as these arise, one should not yield
to them by following them , on the contrary, one should ask 'To whom do
they arise ?' In order to do this, one has to be extremely vigilant. Through
constant enquiry one should make the mind stay in its source, without
allowing it to wander away and get lost in the mazes of thought created
by itself. All other disciplines such as breath-control and meditation on
the forms of God should be regarded as auxiliary practices. They are
useful in so far as they help the mind to become quiescent and
the mind that has gained skill in concentration, Self-enquiry becomes
comparatively easy. It is by ceaseless enquiry that the thoughts are
destroyed and the Self realized - the plenary Reality in which there is
not even the 'I' thought, the experience which is referred to as
in substance, is Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi's teaching in Nan Yar (Who
M. P. MAHADEVAN
University of Madras
June 30, 1982
Namo Bhagavathe Sri Ramanaya
Am I? - (Nan Yar?)
As all living beings desire to be happy
always, without misery, as in the case of everyone there is observed
supreme love for one's self, and as happiness alone is the cause for
love, in order to gain that happiness which is one's nature and which is
experienced in the state of deep sleep where there is no mind, one should
know one's self. For that, the path of knowledge, the inquiry of the form
"Who am I?", is the principal means.
1 . Who am I ?
The gross body which is composed of the
seven humours (dhatus), I am not; the five cognitive sense organs, viz.
the senses of hearing, touch, sight, taste, and smell, which apprehend
their respective objects, viz. sound, touch, colour, taste, and odour, I
am not; the five cognitive sense-organs, viz. the organs of speech,
locomotion, grasping, excretion, and procreation, which have as their
respective functions speaking, moving, grasping, excreting, and enjoying,
I am not; the five vital airs, prana, etc., which perform respectively
the five functions of in-breathing, etc., I am not; even the mind which
thinks, I am not; the nescience too, which is endowed only with the
residual impressions of objects, and in which there are no objects and no
functioning's, I am not.
2. If I am none of these, then who
After negating all of the
above-mentioned as 'not this', 'not this', that Awareness which alone
remains - that I am.
3. What is the nature of Awareness?
The nature of Awareness is
4. When will the realization of the
Self be gained?
When the world which is what-is-seen
has been removed, there will be realization of the Self which is the
5. Will there not be realization of
the Self even while the world is there (taken as real)?
There will not be.
The seer and the object seen are like
the rope and the snake. Just as the knowledge of the rope which is the
substrate will not arise unless the false knowledge of the illusory
serpent goes, so the realization of the Self which is the substrate will
not be gained unless the belief that the world is real is removed.
7. When will the world which is the
object seen be removed?
When the mind, which is the cause of
all cognition's and of all actions, becomes quiescent, the world will
8. What is the nature of the mind?
What is called 'mind' is a wondrous
power residing in the Self. It causes all thoughts to arise. Apart from
thoughts, there is no such thing as mind. Therefore, thought is the
nature of mind. Apart from thoughts, there is no independent entity
called the world. In deep sleep there are no thoughts, and there is no
world. In the states of waking and dream, there are thoughts, and there
is a world also. Just as the spider emits the thread (of the web) out of
itself and again withdraws it into itself, likewise the mind projects the
world out of itself and again resolves it into itself. When the mind
comes out of the Self, the world appears. Therefore, when the world
appears (to be real), the Self does not appear; and when the Self appears
(shines) the world does not appear. When one persistently inquires into
the nature of the mind, the mind will end leaving the Self (as the
residue). What is referred to as the Self is the Atman. The mind always
exists only in dependence on something gross; it cannot stay alone. It is
the mind that is called the subtle body or the soul (jiva).
9. What is the path of inquiry for
understanding the nature of the mind?
That which rises as 'I' in this body is
the mind. If one inquires as to where in the body the thought 'I' rises
first, one would discover that it rises in the heart. That is the place of
the mind's origin. Even if one thinks constantly 'I' 'I', one will be led
to that place. Of all the thoughts that arise in the mind, the 'I'
thought is the first. It is only after the rise of this that the other
thoughts arise. It is after the appearance of the first personal pronoun
that the second and third personal pronouns appear; without the first
personal pronoun there will not be the second and third.
10. How will the mind become
By the inquiry 'Who am I?'. The thought
'who am I?' will destroy all other thoughts, and like the stick used for
stirring the burning pyre, it will itself in the end get destroyed. Then,
there will arise Self-realization.
11. What is the means for constantly
holding on to the thought 'Who am I?'
When other thoughts arise, one should
not pursue them, but should inquire: 'To whom do they arise?' It does not
matter how many thoughts arise. As each thought arises, one should
inquire with diligence, "To whom has this thought arisen?". The
answer that would emerge would be "To me". Thereupon if one
inquires "Who am I?", the mind will go back to its source; and
the thought that arose will become quiescent. With repeated practice in
this manner, the mind will develop the skill to stay in its source. When
the mind that is subtle goes out through the brain and the sense-organs,
the gross names and forms appear; when it stays in the heart, the names
and forms disappear. Not letting the mind go out, but retaining it in the
Heart is what is called "inwardness" (antar-mukha). Letting the
mind go out of the Heart is known as "externalisation"
(bahir-mukha). Thus, when the mind stays in the Heart, the 'I' which is
the source of all thoughts will go, and the Self which ever exists will
shine. Whatever one does, one should do without the egoity "I".
If one acts in that way, all will appear as of the nature of Siva (God).
12. Are there no other means for
making the mind quiescent?
Other than inquiry, there are no
adequate means. If through other means it is sought to control the mind,
the mind will appear to be controlled, but will again go forth. Through
the control of breath also, the mind will become quiescent; but it will
be quiescent only so long as the breath remains controlled, and when the
breath resumes the mind also will again start moving and will wander as
impelled by residual impressions. The source is the same for both mind
and breath. Thought, indeed, is the nature of the mind. The thought
"I" is the first thought of the mind; and that is egoity. It is
from that whence egoity originates that breath also originates.
Therefore, when the mind becomes quiescent, the breath is controlled, and
when the breath is controlled the mind becomes quiescent. But in deep
sleep, although the mind becomes quiescent, the breath does not stop.
This is because of the will of God, so that the body may be preserved and
other people may not be under the impression that it is dead. In the
state of waking and in samadhi, when the mind becomes quiescent the
breath is controlled. Breath is the gross form of mind. Till the time of
death, the mind keeps breath in the body; and when the body dies the mind
takes the breath along with it. Therefore, the exercise of breath-control
is only an aid for rendering the mind quiescent (manonigraha); it will not
destroy the mind (manonasa).
Like the practice of breath-control.
meditation on the forms of God, repetition of mantras, restriction on
food, etc., are but aids for rendering the mind quiescent.
Through meditation on the forms of God
and through repetition of mantras, the mind becomes one-pointed. The mind
will always be wandering. Just as when a chain is given to an elephant to
hold in its trunk it will go along grasping the chain and nothing else,
so also when the mind is occupied with a name or form it will grasp that
alone. When the mind expands in the form of countless thoughts, each
thought becomes weak; but as thoughts get resolved the mind becomes
one-pointed and strong; for such a mind Self-inquiry will become easy. Of
all the restrictive rules, that relating to the taking of sattvic food in
moderate quantities is the best; by observing this rule, the sattvic
quality of mind will increase, and that will be helpful to Self-inquiry.
13. The residual impressions
(thoughts) of objects appear wending like the waves of an ocean. When
will all of them get destroyed?
As the meditation on the Self rises
higher and higher, the thoughts will get destroyed.
14. Is it possible for the residual
impressions of objects that come from beginningless time, as it were, to
be resolved, and for one to remain as the pure Self?
Without yielding to the doubt "Is
it possible, or not?", one should persistently hold on to the
meditation on the Self. Even if one be a great sinner, one should not
worry and weep "O! I am a sinner, how can I be saved?"; one
should completely renounce the thought "I am a sinner"; and
concentrate keenly on meditation on the Self; then, one would surely
succeed. There are not two minds - one good and the other evil; the mind
is only one. It is the residual impressions that are of two kinds -
auspicious and inauspicious. When the mind is under the influence of
auspicious impressions it is called good; and when it is under the
influence of inauspicious impressions it is regarded as evil.
The mind should not be allowed to
wander towards worldly objects and what concerns other people. However
bad other people may be, one should bear no hatred for them. Both desire
and hatred should be eschewed. All that one gives to others one gives to
one's self. If this truth is understood who will not give to others? When
one's self arises all arises; when one's self becomes quiescent all
becomes quiescent. To the extent we behave with humility, to that extent
there will result good. If the mind is rendered quiescent, one may live
15. How long should inquiry be
As long as there are impressions of
objects in the mind, so long the inquiry "Who am I?" is
required. As thoughts arise they should be destroyed then and there in
the very place of their origin, through inquiry. If one resorts to
contemplation of the Self unintermittently, until the Self is gained,
that alone would do. As long as there are enemies within the fortress,
they will continue to sally forth; if they are destroyed as they emerge,
the fortress will fall into our hands.
16. What is the nature of the Self?
What exists in truth is the Self alone.
The world, the individual soul, and God are appearances in it. like
silver in mother-of-pearl, these three appear at the same time, and
disappear at the same time. The Self is that where there is absolutely no
"I" thought. That is called "Silence". The Self
itself is the world; the Self itself is "I"; the Self itself is
God; all is Siva, the Self.
17. Is not everything the work of
Without desire, resolve, or effort, the
sun rises; and in its mere presence, the sun-stone emits fire, the lotus
blooms, water evaporates; people perform their various functions and then
rest. Just as in the presence of the magnet the needle moves, it is by
virtue of the mere presence of God that the souls governed by the three
(cosmic) functions or the fivefold divine activity perform their actions
and then rest, in accordance with their respective karmas. God has no
resolve; no karma attaches itself to Him. That is like worldly actions
not affecting the sun, or like the merits and demerits of the other four
elements not affecting all pervading space.
18. Of the devotees, who is the
He who gives himself up to the Self
that is God is the most excellent devotee. Giving one's self up to God
means remaining constantly in the Self without giving room for the rise
of any thoughts other than that of the Self. Whatever burdens are thrown
on God, He bears them. Since the supreme power of God makes all things
move, why should we, without submitting ourselves to it, constantly worry
ourselves with thoughts as to what should be done and how, and what
should not be done and how not? We know that the train carries all loads,
so after getting on it why should we carry our small luggage on our head
to our discomfort, instead of putting it down in the train and feeling at
19. What is non-attachment?
As thoughts arise, destroying them
utterly without any residue in the very place of their origin is
non-attachment. Just as the pearl-diver ties a stone to his waist, sinks
to the bottom of the sea and there takes the pearls, so each one of us
should be endowed with non-attachment, dive within oneself and obtain the
20. Is it not possible for God and
the Guru to effect the release of a soul?
God and the Guru will only show the way
to release; they will not by themselves take the soul to the state of
release. In truth, God and the Guru are not different. Just as the prey
which has fallen into the jaws of a tiger has no escape, so those who
have come within the ambit of the Guru's gracious look will be saved by
the Guru and will not get lost; yet, each one should by his own effort
pursue the path shown by God or Guru and gain release. One can know
oneself only with one's own eye of knowledge, and not with somebody
else's. Does he who is Rama require the help of a mirror to know that he
21. Is it necessary for one who
longs for release to inquire into the nature of categories (tattvas)?
Just as one who wants to throw away
garbage has no need to analyse it and see what it is, so one who wants to
know the Self has no need to count the number of categories or inquire
into their characteristics; what he has to do is to reject altogether the
categories that hide the Self. The world should be considered like a
22. Is there no difference between
waking and dream?
Waking is long and a dream short; other
than this there is no difference. Just as waking happenings seem real
while awake. so do those in a dream while dreaming. In dream the mind
takes on another body. In both waking and dream states thoughts. names
and forms occur simultaneously.
23. Is it any use reading books for
those who long for release?
All the texts say that in order to gain
release one should render the mind quiescent; therefore their conclusive
teaching is that the mind should be rendered quiescent; once this has
been understood there is no need for endless reading. In order to quieten
the mind one has only to inquire within oneself what one's Self is; how
could this search be done in books? One should know one's Self with one's
own eye of wisdom. The Self is within the five sheaths; but books are
outside them. Since the Self has to be inquired into by discarding the
five sheaths, it is futile to search for it in books. There will come a
time when one will have to forget all that one has learned.
24. What is happiness?
Happiness is the very nature of the
Self; happiness and the Self are not different. There is no happiness in
any object of the world. We imagine through our ignorance that we derive
happiness from objects. When the mind goes out, it experiences misery. In
truth, when its desires are fulfilled, it returns to its own place and
enjoys the happiness that is the Self. Similarly, in the states of sleep,
samadhi and fainting, and when the object desired is obtained or the
object disliked is removed, the mind becomes inward-turned, and enjoys
pure Self-Happiness. Thus the mind moves without rest alternately going
out of the Self and returning to it. Under the tree the shade is
pleasant; out in the open the heat is scorching. A person who has been
going about in the sun feels cool when he reaches the shade. Someone who
keeps on going from the shade into the sun and then back into the shade
is a fool. A wise man stays permanently in the shade. Similarly, the mind
of the one who knows the truth does not leave Brahman. The mind of the
ignorant, on the contrary, revolves in the world, feeling miserable, and
for a little time returns to Brahman to experience happiness. In fact,
what is called the world is only thought. When the world disappears, i.e.
when there is no thought, the mind experiences happiness; and when the
world appears, it goes through misery.
25. What is wisdom-insight
Remaining quiet is what is called
wisdom-insight. To remain quiet is to resolve the mind in the Self.
Telepathy, knowing past, present and future happenings and clairvoyance
do not constitute wisdom-insight.
26. What is the relation between
desirelessness and wisdom?
Desirelessness is wisdom. The two are
not different; they are the same. Desirelessness is refraining from
turning the mind towards any object. Wisdom means the appearance of no
object. In other words, not seeking what is other than the Self is
detachment or desirelessness; not leaving the Self is wisdom.
27. What is the difference between
inquiry and meditation?
Inquiry consists in retaining the mind
in the Self. Meditation consists in thinking that one's self is Brahman,
28. What is release?
Inquiring into the nature of one's self
that is in bondage, and realising one's true nature is release.